ELEVATORS AND RELATED EQUIPMENT
(1) “Elevator” shall mean a hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car or platform, which moves in guides in substantially vertical direction, serving two or more floors of a building or structure.
(2) “Hoistway” shall mean a shaftway for the travel of one or more elevators. It includes the pit and terminates at the underside of the overhead machinery/space floor or grating, or at the underside of the roof.
(3) “Buffer” shall mean a device designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its normal limit of travel by steering or by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic energy of the car or counterweight.
(4) “Safety Counterweight” shall mean a mechanical device attached to the counterweight frame to stop and hold the counterweight in case of predetermined over speed or free fall or if the hoisting ropes slacken.
(5) “Elevator Pit” shall mean that portion of a hoist extending from the level of the lowest landing door to the floor at the bottom of the hoistway.
(6) “Elevator Landing” shall mean that portion of floor, balcony, or platform to receive and discharge passenger or freight.
(7) “Hoistway Enclosure” shall mean the fixed structure, consisting of vertical walls or partitions, which isolates from all other parts of the building or from an adjacent hoistway in which the hoistway floor and assemblies are installed.
(8) “Elevator Car”‘ shall mean the load carrying unit including the platform, car frame, enclosure and car door or gate.
(9) “Car door or gate” shall mean the movable portion of the car entrance which closes the opening access to the car.
(10)”Control” shall mean the system governing the starting, stopping, direction of motion, acceleration and speed.
(11)”Controller” shall mean a device or group of devices which serves to control in a predetermined manner the apparatus to which it is connected.
(12)”Emergency stop switch ” shall mean a device located in the car which when operated causes the electric power to be removed from the driving machine, motor and brake of an electric elevator or from the electrically operated valves and/or pump motor of a hydraulic elevator.
(13)”Trunsom” shall mean a panel or panels used to close a hoistway enclosure opening above a hoistway entrance.
(14)”Travel” shall mean the vertical distance between the bottom terminal landing and the top terminal landing of an elevator.
(15)”Driving Machine” shall mean the power unit, which applies the energy necessary to raise and lower the elevator car or to drive the elevator.
(16)”Car Enclosure” shall mean the top and the walls of the car resting on and attached to the car platform.
(17)”Car Frame” shall mean the supporting frame to which the car platform, upper and lower sets of guide shoes, car safety and the hoisting rope sheaves or the plunger of a direct plunger elevator are attached.
(18)”Car Platform” shall mean the structure which forms the floor of the car that supports the load.
(19)”Dumbwaiter” shall mean a hoisting and lowering mechanism with a car of limited capacity of 220 kg. (500 lbs.) and size which moves in guides in a substantially vertical direction and is used exclusively for carrying materials.
(20)”Escalator” shall mean a power driven, inclined continuous stairway used for raising and lowering passengers.
(21)”Freight Elevator” shall mean an elevator primarily used for carrying freight and in which only the operator and the persons necessary for unloading and loading the freight are permitted to ride.
(22)”Hand Elevator” shall mean an elevator utilizing manual energy.
(23)”Passenger Elevator” shall mean an elevator used primarily to carry persons.
(24)”Power Elevator” shall mean an elevator utilizing energy other than gravitational or manual to move the car.
(25)”Electric Elevator” shall mean a power elevator where the energy is applied by means of an electric driving machine.
(26)”Hydraulic Elevator” shall mean a power elevator where the energy is applied by means of a liquid under pressure in a cylinder equipped with plunger or piston.
(27)”Direct Plunger Elevator” shall mean a hydraulic elevator having a plunger or piston directly attached to the car frame or platform.
(28)”Electric Hydraulic Elevator” shall mean a direct-plunger elevator where the liquid is pumped under pressure directly into the cylinder by a pump driven by an electric motor.
(29)”Roped Hydraulic Elevator” shall mean a hydraulic elevator having its piston connected to the car with wire ropes.
1222: General Provisions:
The owner/manager or his authorized representative shall file with the Secretary or his authorized representative having jurisdiction an application to install or construct an elevator together with the necessary plans in triplicate signed and sealed by a registered professional mechanical engineer for the mechanical plans and by a professional electrical engineer for the electrical plans, both duly licensed to practice in the Philippines.
No elevator, (passenger or freight) shall be installed and/or operated in any place of employment in the Philippines without a written permit issued for the purpose by the Regional Labor Office or authorized representative having jurisdiction.
(1) Upon approval of the application and plans together with the necessary supporting papers, the installation and/or construction of the elevator may be started under the direct charge and supervision of a professional mechanical engineer and professional electrical engineer,
(2) The Regional Office or authorized representative shall be informed either in writing or in person of any deviation made from the approved plans.
(3) In cases where major alterations are made that may affect the approved design, the plans shall be resubmitted for approval.
(4) Upon completion of the installation and/or construction, a request for final inspection shall be filed with the Regional Labor Office or authorized representative having jurisdiction. If such inspection show compliance with the approved plans, standards and necessary tests, a permit or certificate shall be issued valid for one (1 )year from the date of final inspection.
Application for the renewal of a permit/certificate shall be filed by the owner/manager or his duly authorized representative with the Regional Labor Office or authorized representative with the Regional Labor Office or authorized representative having jurisdiction at least thirty (30) days before the expiration date of permit or certificate.
1223: General Requirements:
(1) Every part of the structure, machinery, and equipment shall be:
a. of good design, good mechanical construction, sound material, adequate strength, free from defects, and
b. kept in good working condition.
(2) Hoistways from all elevators shall be substantially enclosed throughout their height and there shall be no openings except for necessary doors, windows or skylights.
(3) Hoistways for elevators outside the buildings shall be substantially enclosed to a height of at least 3 m (10 ft.) provided that the enclosure shall be continuous to the top of any side where there is access to the cage.
(4) The enclosures shall be either a continuous wall or substantial grill work, metal bars, or wood slats. In general enclosures shall be fire resistant.
a. Where a hoistway extends into the top of a building, fire-resistant hoistway or machinery spaced enclosures shall be carried to the underside of the roof, if the roof is of fire-resistive construction, and at least 90 cm (3 ft.) above the surface of the roof, if the roof is of non-fire-resistive construction;
b. Where a hoistway does not extend into the top floor of a building, the top of the hoistway shall be enclosed with a fire resistant construction.
a. A pit shall be provided for every elevator.
b. The floor of the pit shall be approximately level.
c. Pits extending below the ground level shall have non-combustible floors and shall be designed to prevent entry of ground water into the pit. The pit floor of any hoistway not extending to the ground shall be of fire resistant construction.
d. Hoistway pits shall be of such depth that when the car rests on the fully compressed buffers, there shall be a vertical clearance of not less than 610 mm. between the pit floor and the lowest structural or mechanical part, equipment or device installed beneath the car platform except guide shoes or rollers, safety jaw assemblies, and platform aprons, guards, or other equipment located within 305 mm. horizontally from the sides of the car platform.
e. Safe and convenient access shall be provided to all pits and shall conform to the following:
(1) Access shall be by means of the lowest hoistway door or by means of a separate pit access door. Where a separate pit access door is provided, it shall be self-closing and provided with a spring-type lock arranged to permit the door to be opened from inside the pit without a key. Such doors shall be kept locked.
(2) There shall be installed in the pit of each elevator where the pit extends more than 914 mm below the sill of the pit access door, a fixed vertical ladder or non-combustible material located within reach of the access door. The ladder shall extend not less than 1,067 mm above the sill of the access door, or handgrips shall be provided to the same height.
(3) Pits shall be accessible only to authorized persons.
f. A permanent lighting fixture shall be provided in all pits, which shall provide an illumination of not less than 54 lux at the pit floor. A light switch shall be so located as to be accessible from the pit access door.
g. There shall be installed in the pit of each elevator an enclosed stop switch or switches and shall be located as to be accessible from the pit access door. When the pit exceeds 2,010 mm. in depth, an additional stop switch is required adjacent to the pit ladder and approximately 1,220 mm. above the pit floor. Where more than one switch is provided, they shall be wired in series.
(7) Hoistways of elevators serving more than three (3) floors shall be provided a means of venting smoke and hot gases to the outer air in case of fire. The area of the vents shall not be less than 3 1/2% of the area of the hoistway or less than 0.28 sq. m. (3 sq.ft.) for each elevator car, which ever is greater. Of the total required vent area, not less than 1/3 shall be permanently opened by a damper.
a. Vents shall be located:
i. in the side of the hoistway, enclosure directly before the floor or floors at the top of the hoistway and shall open directly to the outer air through non-combustible ducts to the outside, or
ii. in the wall or roof of the penthouse or overhead machinery space above the roof provided, that the openings have a total area of not less than the minimum required.
b. Closed portions of the required vent area shall consist of windows, skylights openings glazed with glass not more than 0.32 cm (1/8 in.) thick.
(8) Windows on the walls of the hoistway enclosures are prohibited. Frames and sashes of windows in machine rooms and skylights shall be of metal. A metal or concrete floor shall be provided at the top of the hoistway:
a. Above or level the machine beams where the machine is located over the hoistway.
b. Below the overhead sheaves where the machine is located over the hoistway.
c. Metal floors shall conform to the following:
1. If of bar-type grating, the openings between bars shall reject a ball 20 m.m. in diameter.
2. If of perforated sheet metal or of fabricated openwork construction, the openings shall reject a ball 25 mm. in diameter.
a. The floor shall be capable of sustaining a concentrated load of 136 kg. on any 2,580 mm 2 area in addition where it constitutes the floor of the main or secondary level machinery space, it shall be designed for a live load of not less than 611 kg/m 2 in all open areas.
b. A sign stating the maximum allowable load for which the floor is designed shall be prominently displayed at eye level in a main and secondary machine room spaces and shall be of metal with block letters with at least 10 cm. (4 in.) high on a white background.
c. The floor shall extend over the entire area of the hoistway where the cross-sectional area is ten (10) sq. m. or less. Where the cross-sectional area is greater, the floor shall extend not less than 2 cm. beyond the contour of the machine or sheaves or other equipment, and to the entrance to the machinery space at or above the level of the platform.
d. Differences in levels of machine room and machinery space floors shall be avoided, where practicable. Where the difference in level in such floors exceed 30 cm., a railing shall be provided at the edge of the higher level. Where such change in level occurs, ladders or stairs shall be provided for access between levels.
(10)Ropes, wires or pipes shall not be installed in hoistway, except where necessary for the operation of the elevators. Only electrical wiring, rage ways, and cables used directly in connection with the elevator, including wiring for signals, for communication with the car, for lighting, heating, air conditioning, and ventilating the car, for low voltage fire-detecting systems, for pit sump pumps, and for heating and lighting the hoistway, may be installed inside the hoistway.
(11)Electrical conductors, other than trailing cables, shall be encased in metal conduits or armored cables and all live parts of the electrical apparatus in hoistways or in cages shall be suitably enclosed to afford protection against accidental contact.
(12)Landing doors of power driven elevators shall be provided with interlocks to hold the elevator car immovable while any landing is open, and to make it impossible to open any landing door when the car is more than 7.5 cm. (3 in.) away from the landing except with a special emergency key.
(13)Landing openings in passenger-elevator hoistway enclosures shall be protected preferably by sliding doors, or swinging doors or a combination of both.
(14)On passenger elevators, vertically sliding or counter-balanced landing doors shall only be permitted if interlocked with elevator car doors or gates so the landing door cannot:
a. open more than 60 cm. (24 in.) until the hoistway door is locked in its fully opened positions, and
b. start to close until the car door or gates is closed to 60 cm. (24 in.) of full closure.
(15)Landing doors or gates shall when closed, extend to the top of the landing opening.
(16)Elevators car doors or gates shall, when closed, guard the full opening.
(17) Passenger elevators, except elevators operated by automatic control shall be operated at all times by regular, trained and competent operators.
(18)Clearance between the sides of elevators cars and hoistway enclosure shall not be less than 1.9 mm. except on the sides used for loading and unloading. Clearance between the cars and their counterweight shall not be less than 25 mm. The clearance between counter weight and the counterweight screen and between the counterweight and the hoistway enclosure shall be not less than 19 mm.
(19)Clearance between the car-platform sill and the hoistway edge of any landing sill, or the hoistway side of any vertically sliding counterweighted or counterbalanced hoistway door or of any vertically sliding counterbalanced biparting hoistway door, shall be not less than 13 mm. where side guides are used, and not less than 19 mm. where corner guides are used. In no case shall such clearances exceed 38 mm.
(20)The clearance between the landing edge of car platform sill the hoistway enclosure of fascia plate for the full width of the clear hoistway-door opening shall be not more than 127 mm. Except where vertically sliding hoistway doors are installed, the clearance specified may be increased 190 mm. For heavy duty elevators on extra wide door openings, the clearance may be increased where necessary, subject to the approval of the enforcing authority.
(21)Car and machine counterweights shall run in guides or suitable boxes with the inner surfaces flush or without any obstruction.
(22)Counterweight runways shall be located in the hoistways with the exposed sides covered from a height of at least 2.15 m. (7 ft.) above the floor of the pit.
(23)Car or machine counterweights not located in the elevator shaft shall be entirely enclosed on all sides.
(24)At least two hoisting and two counterweight cables shall be provided on all power freight elevators raised or lowered by cables.
(25)The operation of freight elevators having only one hoisting cable shall be prohibited, unless the diameter and material of the cable is adequate to carry safely the maximum load with a factor of safety of not less than 12.
(26)The drum ends of cables shall be securely anchored, preferably by clamps, on the side of the winding drum, and these shall be at least two turns of the hoisting and counterweight cables on winding drums where either the car or counterweights are at its lower limits of travel.
(27)All cables and drum type elevators shall be provided with equalizers and eveners respectively.
(28)No elevator machinery, except the idler or deflecting sheave, shall be hanged underneath the supporting beams at the top of the hoistways.
(29)No machinery, except the buffers and machinery for hydraulic plunger elevators shall be located directly under the elevator hoistway.
(30)Set screw fastening shall not be used in lieu of keys in the construction and installation of any hoisting machinery.
(31)All hoisting machinery shall be provided with adequate guards as required by Rule 1200.
(32)All elevators operated from a pressure tank where the fluid pressure is obtained by directly admitting air or gas to the tank shall comply with the rules governing hydraulic elevators.
(33)All parts of elevator installation shall be inspected at regular intervals as prescribed by the enforcing authority.
(34)Elevator cars shall be provided with an audible emergency signal that is operable from within the car and audible outside or with a telephone.
(35)All elevator cars shall have a sign posted conspicuously which shall show the maximum rated load.
(36)Power elevators that do not conform to all the regulations for passenger elevators, shall have signs posted at every landing and in the elevator car, prohibiting passengers except the operator from riding.
(37)All electric elevator cars shall be provided with emergency stop switches, independent of the operating devices and located adjacent to the emergency stop switches.
(38)The rated speed of power driven elevators carrying an operator shall not exceed 3.66 km/hr. (200 ft. per minute), except in the case of automatic operation and continuous pressure operation elevators or those controlled by a regular operator.
(39)The rated speed of electric freight elevators with continuous pressure operation shall not exceed 2.76 km/hr. (151 ft. per minute).
(40)The rated speed of belt or chain-driven freight elevator shall not exceed 1.1 km/hr. (60 ft. per minute), and the rated speed of elevators operating through hatchway covers shall not exceed 0. 91 km/hr. (50 ft. per minute)
(41)Landing openings in freight elevators shall be protected by horizontal or vertical sliding doors, combination sliding and swinging doors, swinging doors, or vertical sliding doors.
(42)Higher speeds provided in (38), (39), (40) and (41) may be permitted subject to the approval of the enforcing authority.
1224: Standards Requirements:
For purposes of inspection, checking, test and other considerations prior to the approval of any installation and use of any elevator, the following in accordance with their latest revisions, are hereby adopted:
(1) A.S.M.E. Elevator Code and
(2) P.S.M.E. CODE
1225: Requirements in the Preparation of Plans:
Before an elevator (passenger or freight), manlift, dumbwaiter or escalator is installed, the owner/manager or his authorized representative shall file with the Secretary or his authorized representative an application for mechanical and electrical wiring installation, to install elevator/manlift/dumbwaiter escalator, and to construct hoistway and install gates and doors, in triplicate, accompanied by three (3) copies of each sheet of plans in white print. The following shall be incorporated in the plans which show the requirements as indicated:
(1) Location Plans:
a. site of the compound indicating any known landmarks, such as street, private or public place or building and an arrow indicating NORTH direction drawn not necessarily to scale.
(2) Electrical Layout:
a. lighting and power layout;
b. riser or single lines diagrams;
c. riser design computation;
d. load schedule;
e. electrical legend and specification.
(3) Machine Room:
a. Front and side view and plan of the driving machine, governor exit and machine beams;
b. type of drive.
a. the construction, specification and dimension;
b. location of limit switches and all other safety devices.
(5) Car, Cage and Platform:
a. specification materials and dimensions;
b. side and front views of the car sizes of frameworks, doors, gates, sill, floor and top emergency exits;
c. ventilation, handrails, guides, tracks, hangers, bumpers, slack devices and controllers;
d. car safety devices and platform guards.
a. the specifications, dimensions and materials;
b. type, speed and governor marking plate.
a. dimensions, materials and specifications;
b. the counterweight safety devices, enclosures, guards, guides and sheaves;
c. the rope, the rods and frames.
(8) Buffers, Bumpers, Cars and Counterweights
a. the type and location;
b. the construction, materials and specifications;
c. the factor of safety and buffer marking plate or rating plate.
(9) The Pits:
a. The dimensions and constructions;
b . access to pit, light, drainage and guards between adjacent pits.
(10) Cables, Hoisting and Suspension Ropes:
a. the size, material and number of cables;
b. tensile stress, factor of safety number of strands, number of wires per strand, lay weight per m. and size of the driving drum.
(11) Design Computation:
The minimum rate load, speed, factor of safety, weight of counterweight, stresses in car frame, platform frames, tripping speed of governor, stopping distance for car and counterweight safety devices and impact on buffer supports.
(12) Clearance of Cars and Counterweights:
a. the top and bottom car clearance;
b. the top counterweight clearances;
c. the maximum bottom runby;
d. the clearance between car and hoistway, enclosures,
e. the clearances between the car and counterweight frame;
f. the clearances between car in multiple hoistway and landing sills, and
g. the clearance between loading side of car platform and hoistway enclosures.