PREMISES OF ESTABLISHMENTS
1060.01: General Provisions:
(1) Building premises shall have adequate fire, emergency or danger sign and safety instructions of standard colors and sizes visible at all times, in accordance with table II, “Standard colors of signs for safety instruction and warnings in building premises”. (Appendix)
(2) Other visible signs that may be needed to direct the driver of motorized vehicle such as STOP, YIELD, and DO NOT ENTER, properly positioned within the compound of the establishment shall be used to increase safety especially during the night.
(3) Handicapped employees should be restricted only to designated workplaces. As far as practicable and feasible they should be provided with facilities for safe and convenient movement with the establishment.
(4) Good housekeeping shall be maintained at all times through cleanliness of building, yards, machines, equipment, regular waste disposal, and orderly arrangement of processes, operations, storage and filing of materials.
(5) Personal Facilities: Adequate comfort rooms and lavatories separate for male and female workers;
Adequate dressing rooms for female workers and locker rooms for male workers shall be provided, in accordance with article 132, Chapter 1, Title 111 Book 111 of the Labor Code of the Philippines. The number of comfort facilities for a given number of workers shall conform with the requirement of the Department of Health.
1061: Construction and Maintenance:
(1) All buildings, permanent or temporary shall be structurally safe and sound to prevent their collapse.
(2) Roof shall be of sufficient strength to withstand normal load, typhoons and strong winds in addition to normal weather conditions and where required to carry suspended loads.
(3) Foundations and floors shall be of sufficient strength to sustain safely the loads for which they are designed and under no condition shall they be overloaded.
(4) Plans for proposed new construction and alterations or substantial repairs of buildings shall be submitted to the Building Official for examination and approval.
1062: Space Requirement:
(1) Workrooms shall be at least 2.7 meters (8 ft. 10 in.) in height from the floor to the ceiling. Where the rooms are air-conditioned and the process allows free movement; existing heights of not less than 2.4 meters (7 ft. I 0 in.) may be allowed.
(2) The maximum number of persons employed in a workroom area shall not exceed one person per 11.5 cubic meters (400 cu. ft.). In calculating the area, no deductions shall be made for benches or other furniture, machinery. or materials but heights exceeding 3 meters (9 ft.-10 in.) shall not be included.
(3) Adequate spaces shall be provided between machinery or equipment to allow normal operation, maintenance or repair and free flow of materials under process or in finished form Passageways between machinery or equipment shall not be less than 60 cm. (24 in.)
1063: Walkway Surface:
1063.01: Stumbling Hazards:
(1) The parts of floors over which any person is liable to walk shall be sufficiently even to afford safe walking and safe trucking of materials.
(2) Such parts of floors shall be free from holes and splinters, improperly fitted gutters or conduits, protruding nails and bolts, projecting valves or pipes, or other projections or obstructions which create stumbling hazards.
1063.02: Slipping Hazards:
(1) Floors, stair-treads and landings shall not be slippery under any condition, or made of any material which will become slippery through wear.
(2) Stairways, ramps, elevator platforms and similar places where slipping may be especially hazardous shall be provided with non-slip walkway surface.
1064: Floor and Wall Opening:
1064.01: Ladderway Opening:
Ladderway floor openings shall be guarded on all exposed sides, except at the entrance to the opening, by permanent railings and toeboards. The passage through the railings shall be provided with a barrier or gate so arranged that a person cannot walk directly through the opening.
1064.02: Stairway Openings:
(1) Stairway floor opening shall be guarded on all exposed sides by permanent railings and toeboards, except the entrance to the stairway.
(2) For infrequently used stairways where traffic across the openings prevents the use of permanent railings, the guards shall consist of flush-hinged covers of adequate strength equipped with railings attached thereto so as to leave only one side exposed when the covers are open. When the openings are not in use, the covers shall be closed or the exposed sides guarded.
(3) Hatchway, chute, pit and trap door openings shall be guarded by:
a. Removable railings with toeboards on not more than two sides and permanent railings with toeboards on all other exposed sides, or
b. Flush-hinged covers as prescribed for stairway floor openings.
1064.03: Manholes and Other Openings:
(1) Manhole floor openings shall be guarded by manhole covers of adequate strength, which need not be hinged.
(2) Other floor openings into which persons can accidentally walk shall be guarded either by permanent railings and toeboards on all exposed sides or by hinged-floor opening covers of adequate strength.
(3) When covers for type (1) or (2) above are not in place, the opening shall be constantly attended to by someone or protected by portable enclosing railings.
(4) Floor openings into which persons cannot accidentally walk on account of fixed machinery, equipment or wall, shall be guarded by covers having no openings more than 2.5 cm. (1 in.) in width securely held in place.
(5) All wall openings less than I meter (3.3 ft.) from the floor, having a height of at least 75-cm (30 in.) and a width of at least, 45 cm. (18 in.) from which there is a drop of more than two (2) meters (6.6 ft.) shall be solidly enclosed or guarded by barriers capable of withstanding a load of at least 100 kgs. (220 lbs.) applied in any direction at any point of the top rail or corresponding members except vertically upward.
(6) All other wall openings, irrespective of their width shall, if their lower edge is either 8 cm. (3.2 in.) or less above floor level on the rear side and 2 meters (6.6 ft.) or more above ground or floor level on the far side, be guarded by:
a. A toeboard across the bottom of the opening, or
b. An enclosing screen either solid or of grills or slat work with openings not more than 2.5 cm. (1 in.) in width capable of withstanding a load of at least 50 kgs. (100 lbs.) applied horizontally at any point.
1064.04: Construction of Railings:
(1) All railings shall be permanently constructed of wood, pipe, structural metal or other material of sufficient strength.
(2) Standard railings shall be at least 1 meter (3.3 ft.) from the floor level to the upper surface of the top rail.
(3) Standard railings shall have posts not more than 2 meters (6.6 ft.) apart and an intermediate rail halfway between the top rail and the floor.
(4) The dimensions of railings and posts anchorage and framing of members shall be such that the completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 100 kgs. (220 lbs.) applied from any direction to any point of the top rail.
(5) Railings of the following types of construction shall be deemed to satisfy tests requirements.
a. for wood railings – top rails and posts of at least 5 cm. x I 0 cm. (2 in. x 4 in.) stock and intermediate rails of at least 5 cm. x 5 cm. (2 in. x 2 in.) or by 2 cm. x 10 cm. (1 in. x 4 in.) stock, all such railings shall be smooth and free from large or loose knots, protruding nails or bolts, splinters, fins, slivers, or cracks.
b. for pipe railings – top rails and posts of metal pipes of at least 30 mm. (1 in.) diameter.
c. for structural metal railings – top rails and posts of angle iron of at least 38 mm. x 38 mm. x 5 mm. (1.5 in. x 1.5 in. x 0.2 in.) and intermediate rails of angle iron of at least 32 mm. x 32 mm. x 3 mm. (13 in. x 1.3 in. x 0.1 2 in.).
(6) Railings shall be of sound materials free from defects and all sharp corners rounded and smoothed.
1064.05: Construction of Toeboards:
(1) Toeboards shall be at least 15 cm. (6 in.) in height
(2) Toeboards may be made of wood, iron, steel or other equivalent material.
(3) Toeboards shall be securely fastened in place, with not more than 6 mm. (0.3 in.) clearance above the floor level.
All stairs, platform, and landings shall be of sufficient strength to sustain safely a liveload of not less than 490 kg/m2 (100 lbs/ft2) with a factor of safety of four (4).
Stairs, except service stairs, i.e., stairs giving access to oiling platforms, shall not be less than 1.1 0 meters (3 ft. 7 in.) in width, clear of all obstructions, except handrails, and shall in no case be less than 90 cm. (35 in.) without the handrails.
(1) Except for service stairs, the pitch of stairways be between 30 0 to 38 0 from the horizontal but shall not be less than 20 0 or more than 45 0 .
(2) Where the pitch is less than 20 0 , a ramp shall be installed, and where it is more than 45 0 , fixed ladder shall be provided.
No stairway shall have a height of more than 3.6 meters (12 ft) between landings.
Headroom shall be provided at all points in the stair well. ‘The vertical clearance shall not be less than 2.0 meters (6 ft. 7 in.) from the top of the tread in line with the face of the riser.
1065.06: Treads and Risers:
(1) Except for the service stairs, treads shall not be less than 25cm. (9in.) in width exclusive of nosing and projections, and the riser shall not be more than 20 cm. (8 in.) and not less than that provided in 1065.03
(2) There shall be no variation in the width of the treads and the height of the risers in any flight. The top and bottom of any flight of stairs shall be clearly distinguished.
(1) All stairs having four or more risers shall be equipped with stair railings on any open side.
(2) Enclosed stairways less than 1.1 2 meters (3 ft. – 8 in.) width shall be equipped with at least one handrail preferably on the right side descending.
(3) Stairways 1.12 meters (3 ft. – 8 in.) more in width shall be equipped with one stair railing on each open side and one handrail on each enclosed side.
(4) Stairs railings shall be constructed in a permanent and sufficient manner of wood, pipe, structural metal or other materials of adequate strength.
(5) The height of the stair railings from the upper surface of the top rail to the surface of the tread in line with the face of the riser at the forward edge of the tread shall not be more than 90 cm. (35 in.) or less than 80 cm (31 in.).
(6) Handrails shall be continuous throughout a flight of stairs and at landings without obstruction other than those intended to prevent persons from sliding.
(7) If made of wood, handrails shall be at least 5 cm. x 5 cm. (2 in. x 2 in.) in cross section, and if of metal pipe, at least 2.54 cm. (1 in.) and not more than 6.75 cm. (2 1/2 in.) in diameter.
(8) Handrails is mounted directly on walls or partitions shall be fixed by means of brackets attached to the lower side of the rail so as not to interfere with the smoothness of the top and side surface of the rails.
(9) Brackets shall be spaced not more than 2 meters (6 ft. – 6 in.) apart and shall be of sufficient length to provide a clearance of at least 4 cm. (1.5 in.) between the rails and the wall or any obstruction on the wall.
(10) The completed structure shall be capable of withstanding a load of at least 100 kgs. (220 lbs.) applied in any direction at any point of the trail.
(11) The clear width of service stairs, such as stairs in engine and boiler rooms or of stairs leading to service platforms around machinery, shall be at least 56 cm. (22 in.).
(12) The pitch of service stairs shall not be more than 60 0 and the width of the treads shall not be less than 15 cm. (6 in.).
(13) Ramps used by persons for ascent or descent form one level to another shall be limited to a rise of not more than I in 10 and shall conform to all construction requirements applying to stairways.
(14) Ramps subjected to heavy stresses from trucking or handling materials shall be provided with additional strength by the use of heavier stock, closer spacing of posts bracing or otherwise designed with a factor of safety of four (4).
1066: Window Openings:
Window openings at stair landings, where the opening is more than 30 cm. (1 2 in.) in width and the sill is less than 1 m. 90 cm. (6 ft.) above the landing, shall be guarded securely by bars, slats, or grills to prevent persons from falling through.
1067: Fixed Ladders:
(1) All metal parts of fittings of ladders shall be made of steel, wrought iron, malleable cast iron or other materials of equivalent strength.
(2) Fixed ladders shall be installed in the following manner.
a. the perpendicular distance from the center line of the rungs to the nearest fixed object on the climbing side of the ladder is at least 90 cm. (35 in.) for a pitch of 75 0 and 75 cm. (30 in.) for a pitch of 90 0 .
b. The distance from the back of the rungs to the nearest fixed object is at least 15 cm. (6 in.)
c. Except in the case of ladders equipped with cages, baskets, or equivalent guards, a clearance of 20 cm. (8 in.) from either side of the ladder to a fixed object shall be provided.
d. No fixed ladders be installed with a pitch over 90 0 .
(3) Fixed ladders used to ascend heights exceeding 9 meters (30 ft.).
a. Shall be provided with landing platform for each 6 meters (20 ft.) or fraction thereof;
b. The sections of the ladder shall be staggered; and
c. If (a) or (b) is not practical, ladders equipped with cages, baskets, or equivalent guards shall be provided.
1068: Overhead Walks, Runways and Platforms:
(1) Walks, runways, working platforms or open sided floors 2 m. (6.6 ft.) or more above the floor or ground level, except platforms used for motor or similar equipment, which do not afford standing space for persons, shall be guarded on all open sides by standard railings and toeboards.
(2) Runways used for filling tank cars or for oiling purposes may have the railing on one side omitted if necessary but the hazards of falling shall be reduced by the use of runways not less than 56 cm. (22 in.) in width.
(3) All runways of platforms constructed over conveyors or machinery shall be guarded on all open sides by standards railings and toeboards.
(1) Plant yards shall be properly drained and graded to facilitate safe access to buildings and safe handling of materials and equipment.
(2) Properly covered or enclosed drain pools and catch basins shall be provided where necessary.
(3) Ditches, pits, and other hazardous openings shall be provided with adequate covers, enclosed or surrounded by sufficient guards,
(4) Walkways, roadways, and railroad tracks shall be carefully laid out in a manner to avoid dangerous grade crossings.
(1) Safe walkways shall be constructed along the shortest line between important points.
(2) Walkways shall not be located under the eaves of buildings where they may become slippery.
(3) Where it is necessary for pedestrians to cross railroad tracks or vehicular roadways, bridges or underpasses shall be provided, and the track or roadway should be fenced to prevent direct crossing at such points.
(4) Walking along railroad tracks by unauthorized persons shall not be allowed.
(5) Railings shall be installed along walkways, on bridges on steep slopes, at slippery places and at places where pedestrians are liable to injury by passing vehicles.
(1) Roadways for automobiles, tractors, or other vehicles shall be soundly constructed with good wearing surfaces.
(2) Roadways shall be of adequate width, and where used by, two-way traffic shall be at least twice the width of the widest vehicle normally used plus 1.25 m. (4 ft.). Sufficient clearance from overhead structures shall be provided.
(3) Where the installations of grade or level crossing cannot be avoided such crossing shall be protected.
(4) Adequate railings or walls shall be provided along bridges, slopes and sharp curves.
(1) Where the premises are surrounded by fencing, separate entrance and exit gates shall be provided for pedestrian, vehicular and railroad traffic.
(2) Gates for pedestrian traffic shall be located at a safe distance from those for vehicular and railroad traffic, shall be of sufficient width to permit the free passage of employees during rush hours, and, if possible, shall be so located not to cross vehicular or railroad traffic.
1069:05: Parking of Vehicles:
Regulations covering the use of driveways for entry and exit, speed limits, space allotments and methods of parking shall be provided and strictly enforce where parking space is provided for automobiles of the employee.