The provisions of this Rule shall apply to all workplaces in which hazardous substances in solid, liquid or gaseous forms are manufactured, handled and used or in which flammable, irritating, offensive or toxic dusts, fibers, gases, mists or vapors are generated or released in quantities injurious to health.
When used in this Rule the following shall mean as follows:
(1) “Hazardous materials or substances” mean substances in solid, liquid or gaseous forms known to constitute poison, fire, explosion or health hazard.
(2) “Corrosive” when referred to the action on inanimate surface such as metal, glass or wood means that a substance will cause the wearing away, or the gradual changing or destroying of the texture or substance of such materials. When referred to the action on living tissue, means that it will cause more or less severe destruction of the tissue by chemical action.
(3) “Hot” means that a material or substance possesses or is characterized by a relatively high temperature.
(4) “Gases” means normally aeroform fluid, which have neither shape nor specific volume but tend to expand indefinitely and which can be changed to the liquid or solid state by the effect of increased pressure or decreased temperature.
(5) “Fumes” means suspended solid particles, which are generated by condensation from gaseous state, generally after volatilisations from molten metals.
(6) “Vapor” means gaseous form of substances which are normally in the liquid or solid state, and which can be changed to these states either by increasing the pressure or decreasing the temperature.
(7) “Mists” means suspended liquid droplets generated by condensation from the gaseous to the liquid state or by breaking up of a liquid into a dispersed state, such as by atomizing, foaming or splashing.
(8) “Fibers” means any tough solid substance composed of thread-like tissue, whether of mineral, vegetable or animal origin.
(9) “Dust” means solid particles capable of being blown about or suspended in the air. generated by handling, crushing, cutting, drilling, grinding, rapid impact, spraying, detonations, or disintegration of inorganic or organic materials and are of a composition similar to the substance or substances from which derived.
(10) “Toxic” means acting or likely to act as a poison, or may chemically produce injurious or deadly
(11) ”Irritating” means causing undue sensitiveness of an organ or part of the body.
1093: General Rules:
1093.01: Reduction of Hazards:
When practicable, harmless substances shall be substituted for hazardous substances or the process shall be revised to reduce worker exposure to the hazards.
1093.02: Control of Processes:
Any one or a combination of the following methods shall be used:
(1) Hazardous processes shall be carried on in separate rooms or building with a minimum number of workers equipped with suitable protective equipment and trained thoroughly in safety practices for daily operations and for emergencies.
(2) The process or operation shall be carried out in an air-tight enclosure to prevent personal contact with the harmful substances and the escape of dusts, fibers, fumes, gases, mists, or vapors into the air or room in which persons work.
(3) Where airtight enclosures or apparatus cannot be used, harmful dusts, fibers, fumes, gases, mists, or vapors shall be removed at or near their point or origin by means of fume chambers or suction hoods properly connected to efficient exhaust system, and
(4) Control by general ventilation to provide a continual inflow of fresh air to keep the concentration of contaminants within safe limits.
1093.03: Use of Personal Protective Equipment:
(1) Workers shall be provided with, and shall use personal protective clothing and equipment in accordance with the requirements of Rule 1080.
(2) Personal protective equipment shall also be used to supplement control methods when such measures cannot adequately eliminate the hazard or when other measures are not possible.
1093.04: Marking of Containers:
All containers with hazardous substances shall be properly labelled. No employer within the scope of this Rule shall accept any container of hazardous substances for use, handling or storage unless such container are labelled.
(1) Specific Labelling Requirements: Labels shall contain the following information:
a. symbol of the relevant category of hazard of the substance contained; categories of hazards shall be explosive, flammable, oxidizing, toxic, corrosive and radioactive; symbols shall be in accordance with
Figure 10 a;
b. trade name may be used in addition to the chemical name of the substance;
c. a description of the principal risk or risks;
d. a statement of the necessary precautions to be taken; and
e. if necessary, a statement of the first-aid or other simple measures to be taken in case of injury or emergency.
(2) Other Aspects of Labelling
a. Shape of labels – warning labels shall be in rectangular shapes;
b. size of symbols – the height of the danger symbol shall be in relation to the size of the package or container upon which the label will be placed.
c. text on the labels shall be adequate in sizes to be clear and legible, and
d. in black on a white background.
(3) Marking of Labels: All required markings shall be either lithographed or press-printed or engraved upon a paper label securely attached or applied to the outside surface of the container. Receptacles of over 18.92 liters (5 gallons) capacity may be marked with letters stencilled, stamped, or uniformly printed not less than 2.54 cm. (1 in.) in height. Marking shall not be defaced or obliterated by rain or other weather elements.
(4) Responsibility for Labelling: (a). The primary responsibility for the correct labelling of packages and containers of hazardous substances manufactured locally shall fall upon the manufacturers. For hazardous substances imported from foreign countries for purposes of distribution and retail to local users, responsibility for correct labelling of containers shall be the importer, distributor or retailer. (b). When hazardous substances in a factory undergo a series of distribution or repacking processes over which the manufacturer has no contact, responsibility for labelling shall fall upon the distributors, wholesalers or retailers. (c). The employer shall be responsible for labelling hazardous substances for use in his workplace other than those supplied by manufacturers or distributors; (d). In case of transfer of hazardous substances from original containers to other containers, the employer shall be responsible for the proper labelling and identification of such substances; and (e) Unlabelled hazardous substances received by the employer shall be properly labelled and identified by him.
(5) Samples of Labels: The sample labels in Figure 10a shall be used as guide.
(6) Condensing of Labels: Where small containers present a problem in labelling for lack of adequate space, the following shall be applied:
a. retain the symbol and the name of the product;
b. retain the statement of hazards;
c. consider omission of precautionary measures if they are clearly indicated in the symbol and in the statement of hazards; and
d. include precautionary measures for any additional hazards, which may be present because of the characteristic of the container, the nature of its use, and the training and experience of the user.
1093.05: Testing of Atmosphere:
The atmosphere of workrooms shall be tested periodically at such intervals as may be necessary but not longer than annually, to ensure that the concentration of irritating or toxic dusts, fibers, fumes, gases, mists or vapors are kept within the threshold limit values specified in Rule 1070.
1093.06: Ventilation and Exhaust Equipment:
Ventilation and exhaust equipment shall be inspected and tested periodically for safe and efficient operational performance.
1093.07: Prevention of Dust Accumulation:
(1) All parts of structure or equipment in which harmful dust is liberated shall be designed and installed so that the surfaces on which dust can accumulate are reduced to a minimum and shall be frequently cleaned.
(2) In rooms where materials producing flammable dusts are processed, handled and stored;
a. dusts shall be removed daily from floors, equipment and other horizontal surfaces, preferably by means of appropriate vacuum apparatus; and
b. all fixtures, ledges, projections, bearings, sidewalks, ceilings and other parts shall be cleaned and freed of dusts at least once a week.
Where practicable, floors or rooms in which harmful dust is liberated shall:
a. be smooth, impervious and easy to clean; and
b . not be covered with loose sheets, metal or other materials under which dust can accumulate.
Where toxic and irritating substances are being handled, manufactured or used, the floors, walls, structural surfaces, work benches, tables and equipment shall be thoroughly cleaned daily by means of vacuum cleaning, wet brushing or sweeping, outside of working hours.
1093.09: Precautionary Measures for Emergencies:
(1) Warning Devices:
In all workplaces where hazardous substances are manufactured, handled or used, suitable warning device shall be installed wherever possible, to alert the personnel in case of the liberation of dangerous quantities of said substances.
(2) Training of Personnel:
Workers shall be trained on procedures to control the liberation of hazardous substances, eliminate pollution, and to evacuate from the affected area in an orderly manner.
1093.10: Working Clothing:
All personnel exposed to irritating or toxic substances shall be provided with appropriate protective clothing including head covering, which shall:
(1) be removed before eating or leaving the premises and kept in places provided for the purpose;
(2) not be taken out of the factory by the users for any purpose; and
(3) be maintained in good condition and washed or cleaned at least once a week.
Spillage of irritating or toxic substances shall be removed as quickly as possible by the best technical and scientific means possible. and available.
1093.12: Instruction on Health Hazards:
All workers shall be thoroughly informed of the health hazards connected with their work and the measures to be taken to protect themselves there from.
The introduction, preparation and consumption of food, drink and tobacco in the workroom shall be prohibited.
1093.14: Personal Cleanliness:
All workers exposed to toxic substances which enter the body through ingestion, shall be required to wash their faces and hands thoroughly before eating, drinking, smoking or before leaving the premises.
1093.15: Time for Use of Washrooms:
A time allowance for the use of the washroom before the meal period and for the use of the shower bath at the end of the days’ work shall be allotted to each worker employed in the manufacture or handling of the following:
(1) irritating or toxic dry mineral or organic substances such as arsenic, chrome, lead, manganese, mercury, phosphorus, zinc and their compounds;
(2) Superphosphates and their compounds;
(3) Dust-producing toxic dyestuffs and pigments;
(4) Dust-producing and coal-tar products such as pitch and soot; and
(5) Radioactive substances.
1093.16: Medical Aid:
All workers exposed to irritating or toxic substances shall be required to report promptly any physical complaints.
1093.17: Exposure Records:
The employer shall maintain accurate record of employee exposure to potentially toxic materials which are required to be measured or monitored. This record shall be open to authorized agents and the workers exposed to such hazards.
1094: Hot and Corrosive Substances:
1094.01: Protection of Structure & Equipment:
In all workplaces where corrosive gases, fumes, mists or vapors are generated and liberated, adequate measures shall be taken to prevent damage to structural parts and factory equipment by corrosion.
(1) Corrosive or hot liquids should be handled in bulk by gravity system or pressure pump system, extending to the point or points of use so as to eliminate transporting in small container.
(2) Emptying receptacles containing corrosives or hot liquids not provided with drain cock shall be by pumps, tipping appliances or other suitable apparatus.
(3) Where portable receptacles are used for corrosive liquids, transport inside factories shall be effected without the escape of fumes or mists and preferably by mechanical means.
(4) Receptacles shall be kept securely closed except during extraction of the contents.
1094.03: Spillage of Acids and Alkalies:
(1) Floors in rooms where corrosive liquids are manufactured, handled or used shall be kept as dry as possible.
(2) Spillage should be avoided. Spilled corrosive liquid shall be guarded until removed to prevent workers from stepping or getting into contact with it.
(3) Spilled or escaping corrosive acid shall not be absorbed by sawdust, waste cloth or other organic materials but shall be flushed out with water or neutralized with chalk or lime.
1094.04: Diluting Acids:
When diluting acid with water, the acid shall be poured slowly into the water, with constant stirring of the mixture. Water shall never be poured into acid.
1094.05: Physical Contact With Corrosive Substances:
(1) Workers exposed to physical contact with corrosive or hot liquids or to caustic compounds of calcium, potassium, sodium or their dusts, shall be provided with and shall use protective clothing and equipment conforming to the requirements of Rule 1080.
(2) In workrooms where corrosive liquids are manufactured, handled or used, clean running water, and quick operating eye fountains and shower baths shall be installed and maintained in or adjacent to such workrooms readily accessible to all workers.
1095.01: Vats and Tanks:
(1) Vats, pans, and open tanks containing hot corrosive or toxic liquids shall, when the opening or top is less than 1 m (3.3 ft) above the floor or working level, be either:
a. raised so the top will not be less than 1 m (3.3 ft.) from the floor or working level, or
b. guarded on all sides by enclosures or by standard railings and when the top is less than 15 cm. (6 in.) above the floor shall be provided with standard toe- boards.
The provisions of a. and b. shall apply to every vat, pan or tank irrespective of the nature of the liquid it may contain.
(2) Where vats, pans or open tanks containing hot, corrosive or toxic liquids adjoin, the space shall be fenced.
(3) Vats, pans, or open tanks containing hot, corrosive or toxic liquids shall be provided with pipes or drains of sufficient capacity to carry off the contents without spilling or their backing up on the floor.
(4) Above-ground tanks containing hot, corrosive or poisonous liquids shall be:
a. surrounded by pits, catch basins or depressions of sufficient size to hold the entire contents in case of rupture; and
b. provided with overflow pipes leading to tanks or to safe places outside the building.
(5) Walkways shall not cross over open vats, pans or tanks containing hot, corrosive or toxic liquids. Where it is necessary to install service walkways for access to agitator drives or valves or for taking samples, such walkways shall be:
a. not less than 50 cm (20 in.) in width;
b. provided on both sides with standard railings and toeboards; and
c. kept clean and dry at all times.
1095.02: Storage Tanks for Non-Flammable Hazardous Liquids:
(1) Tanks used for storage of non-flammable hazardous liquids shall be:
a. located above ground or floor level;
b. supported so that leakage from any part of the tank will be noticeable;
c. surrounded with pits, catch basins or depressions of sufficient size to hold the entire contents of the largest tank in the event of rupture;
d. covered with protective paint to prevent corrosion from moisture or fumes; and
e. provided with stairways or permanent ladders and platforms, where necessary, for convenient and safe access to all parts of the tank and with floors or platforms preferably of metal grating.
(2) Tanks used for storing non-flammable hazardous liquids shall not be placed above passageways.
(3) Tanks used for storing non-flammable hazardous liquids stored in pits below ground level:
a. the pits shall be of concrete or masonry with sufficient space between the walls and the tanks to permit the passage of any person at any point; and
b. the tanks shall be mounted 38 to 45 cm. (15 to 18 in.) above the bottom of the pit.
(4) Pits containing sunken tanks used for storing non-flammable hazardous liquids shall be provided with covers and fixed ladders for safe access.
(5) All control-valves for sunken tanks used for storing non-flammable hazardous liquids shall be:
a. situated or of such design that they can be turned without any person entering the pit; and
b. provided with locking devices operated from the outlets of the pit.
(6) Workers entering storage tanks and pits containing hazardous liquids shall be provided with personal protective clothing and equipment conforming to the requirements of Rule 1080.
(7) Tanks used for storing corrosive or caustic liquids shall be provided with:
a. a permanent open wet pipe not less than 5 cm. (2 in.) in diameter at the highest point in the tank; and
b. a drain connection at the lowest point in the tank discharging into a safe place.
(8) Tanks used for storing corrosive or caustic liquids shall have the filling connections at the top and the discharge pipes 15 cm. (6 in.) above the bottom.
Drums containing acids shall be stored in cool places with the bung up. They shall be carefully opened each time the drum has been moved or once a week if stored for a period of time to relieve any internal pressure and subsequently sealed again.
1095.04: Carboys for Acids:
(1) Carboys containing acids shall be encased singly in baskets or in boxes cushioned with non-combustible packing material.
(2) Carboys containing acids shall be stored in separate store rooms or buildings with concrete floors having anti-acid protection or with brick floors properly drained to catch basins, dry and protected from dampness, extreme heat or sudden change in temperature.
(3) Carboys containing acids shall not be piled one on top of another but should be placed in suitable storage racks or on wooden strips laid on the floor.
(4) Special handling equipment such as two-wheeled carboy trucks shall be provided for transporting carboys containing acids to and from storage.
(5) Adequate equipment shall be provided and used for the emptying of carboys.
(6) Empty acid carboys shall be stored apart from filled carboys.
(7) Empty carboys shall be thoroughly washed out by turning them upside down over and upward with stream of water and drained before they are stored.
(8) Carboys together with their baskets or boxes shall be examined as to their condition before they are filled with acid.
1096: Use of Lead and Its Compounds:
“Lead Compounds” means any organic or inorganic derivatives of lead.
1096.02: Control Measures:
(1) A substitute substance or agent less injurious or harmful shall be used instead of lead such as zinc oxide or titanium oxide instead of white lead in paint manufacture.
(2) Processes involving the use of lead and its compounds shall be enclosed and mechanical handling methods should be used or employed.
1096.03: Storage and Handling:
Stocks of lead materials shall be kept in special storage rooms outside the workrooms. Workrooms in which lead materials are handled shall be located in relation to other parts of the shop of factory in as small an area as possible to confine the lead and to concentrate control measures in that area.
1096.04: Local Exhaust System:
Properly designed exhaust systems, capable of carrying or drawing of air contaminants to maintain or control the threshold limit value of lead in the atmosphere, shall be provided for all processes which generate lead, fumes or dusts. The contaminants removed shall not be allowed to re-enter the workrooms or to pollute other parts of the workplace or the surrounding areas.
1096.05: Personal Protective Equipment:
Appropriate protective equipment and clothing such as overalls, head covering, goggles, gloves, aprons and respirators shall be issued free of charge to lead workers by the employer who shall see to their proper use and maintenance.
1096.06: Smoking or Eating:
Smoking, chewing, eating and the keeping of food in workrooms where lead or its compounds are used and handled shall not be allowed.
1096.07: Storage Lockers:
Suitable storage lockers for street and work-clothes shall be issued to each worker exposed to lead and its compounds. Adequate washing facilities shall be provided.
1096.08: Physical Examination:
Workers exposed to lead shall be subjected to periodic physical examination and laboratory examination at intervals of not more than six (6) months and where the degree of contamination rises above the threshold limit value, such physical examination shall be conducted at least once every three (3) months and a record of such examinations shall be open to authorized agents and to the exposed workers.